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Kitāb al-Ḥayda and Early Ḥanbalī Creeds

Among Islamic groups, Sunnī traditionalists, especially Ḥanbalīs, were strongly opposed to kalām (dialectical theology). Their condemnation of kalām was such that it became an established article of their creeds. Notwithstanding this official condemnation, there is evidence in their writings that they practiced kalām. For example, Ḥanbalī practices of kalām have been examined in the work...

Multilingualism in Early Islamic Egypt: The View from Papyri

After Arab armies conquered Egypt in the mid-seventh century, the country's linguistic landscape changed only gradually. Greek, preeminent for centuries as a language of high culture and governance, faded as Arabic advanced to fill these niches. Coptic, which until then had functioned largely as a vernacular, became in its turn a language of culture and...